Steroids can change your dog’s behavior!

dog 3A while back, I shared results on a small study that looked at the potential behavioral side effects of steroids in dogs. A more recent study was completed by Notari, Burman, and Mills  that took the next step into studying the effects of steroids on dogs. This study found that, similarly to people, steroids do have side effects that are not just physical ( drinking more water, urinating more….) but also behavioral.

Dogs on corticosteroids were reported by their owners to be:

  1. More restless/nervous
  2. More fearful/less confident
  3. More aggressive in the presence of food
  4. Barked more
  5. More prone to startle
  6. More prone to react aggressively when disturbed
  7. More prone to avoiding people and unusual situations.

The real take away from this study, from a very pragmatic perspective, is simply that when side effects of this medication are discussed with owners, behavioral side effects need to be discussed in addition to the physical side effects so clients can take proper precaution if needed or discuss alternatives for treatment ( if that possibility exists).

With the information above, it is important to maintain perspective. Not all dogs will have side effects and steroids may be the best treatment option in certain cases. It is just nice to be informed of all side effects so we know what to watch for and can make informed choices about medical care for our pets.

Published in: on September 30, 2015 at 9:23 am  Leave a Comment  

Low Stress Handling in Kittens

Click on the link below and watch a video on do’s and dont’s of kitten handling when needing to give them meds, examine them etc….Please pass this to every foster, rescue, veterinary clinic, and shelter you know!

Published in: on August 17, 2015 at 8:34 pm  Leave a Comment  

“Living With My Dog Is Like…..

stress out cartoon dogliving with Woody Allen on crack!” This is by far one of my favorite quotes by a client trying to describe to me what it is like living her dog. No doubt, this client’s sense of humor helped her cope living with her beloved pet 🙂

Living with a dog who has behavioral problems is HARD! Unless you have been through it or have great empathy for the situation, you can’t really imagine why a person would go to such great lengths to treat a dog ( or any pet) that has a behavioral disorder. It is hard enough in our culture to accept the validity of human mental diseases such as depression, bipolar, social anxiety etc….let alone to believe, or accept, that a pet could possibly be affected by such biological  imbalances or malfunctioning  neural circuits.

I think if someone told me to just “snap out of it” after I was diagnosed with post partum depression, I would have been inclined to break their leg and tell them…” Just get up and walk..its all in your head! ” No matter how much a person with a broken leg may want to walk,  the underlying biological structure of the leg is compromised and thereby one can not use it to function as they previously have. They must seek the appropriate help and treat the leg in order to restore function.   Just like a leg can break for many reasons, people who are afflicted with depression, anxiety disorders etc.. can be so for many reasons. Many have at risk genes that predispose or cause  malfunctioning of neural circuits via different mechanisms. Being told to ” get over it” is unlikely going to qualify as treatment for that person just as telling a dog owner whose dog has genuine behavioral dysfunction that the owner just needs to “socialize the dog more” or ” show the dog who is the boss/dominant”.  This concept of malfunctioning neural circuits affecting the behavior of a pet is a concept that society needs to understand. As our culture begins to become more understanding of mental disease in people, I hope we can extend that circle of compassion and understanding to our pets who suffer with similar issues. Along those lines, they say it takes a village to raise a human child and in truth, it can take a village to raise to pet. Therefore, for all of us members of society ( i.e the proverbial village) please  respect the following so that those dog owners who are working hard to treat their pets can be successful:

1. If someone has a yellow ribbon tied to their leash – do not approach that dog/person ( a yellow ribbon tied to a leash indicates the dog has issues and you and or your dog need to give that dog and person space).

2. If someone tells you their dog is not friendly, please do not respond by saying..”its okay I’m a dog person”  and then reach towards the dog. If a person tells you their dog is not friendly..just say thank you and keep on walking.

3. If you notice someone is trying hard to walk a reactive dog and they are clearly waiting for you and your dog to pass, don’t linger and chat on your cell phone. If possible, please get by that person as quickly as possible. We totally understand that you do not have to do this and this is a favor that is being asked of you. Please at least consider it.

4.  If you notice someone is trying hard to walk a reactive dog, please don’t stand there and stare. This makes the dog much more reactive, and makes it much harder for the owner of the reactive dog to pass by. It is also interfering with that dog’s progress.

5. If someone tells you their dog is having behavior issues, please don’t offer advice such as – “watch the dog whisperer”, “you need to be the boss”. You have no training in this field and just because you may have a pet that you trained to do a few things, does not make you a behavior expert any more than you having  eyes makes you an opthalmologist.  Advise them to seek professional help from qualified individuals. If you do not know who qualified individuals are, advise them to speak to their veterinarian.

6. This is my personal hot button – if someone mentions to you that their dog has separation anxiety and their dog goes crazy in the crate and tries to escape – advise they need to see a veterinarian or veterinary behaviorist  as those dogs need medications! They are suffering! Once medications are on board, other strategies can be can implemented.

Now, we dog owners can not expect the village to help us out if we don’t step up and take responsibility to keep those in the village safe! If you are an owner of a dog who bites, for whatever reason, it is YOUR responsibility to keep the village safe. No one in the village is going to be understanding or wanting to help if YOU are putting them or their pets/family members at risk. For dog owners and village members both- we need to change how we perceive the use of muzzles. Go to for good information and click on the following link ( first video clip on the page)  to watch one of our patients and  see just how happy a dog can be wearing a muzzle.

Here is looking forward to an increase in understanding and awareness for good mental health for all because no one should have to endure living with Woody Allen on crack.

Emily D. Levine DVM DACVB

Animal Emergency and Referral Associates

Fairfield, NJ 07004


Published in: on May 29, 2015 at 12:44 pm  Comments (2)  

Who Says You Can’t Teach A Dog To Like Wearing A Muzzle?

So many people doubt that a dog can be taught to like wearing a muzzle. When you pick the right technique for a patient, the results can be fantastic! Check out the video of our patient ( ) who, as part of his treatment plan, learned to wear a basket muzzle. His parents have been great and all their hard work has paid off!

Many of our patients work with each member of our behavior team (a board certified veterinary behaviorist, behavior technician, and our staff behavior trainer) to help clients succeed in teaching such things to their pets.

* I have started a Fetch the Facts facebook page where there will be more frequent posts and videos. If you wish to receive those in your feed, just click here: and click on the like button for the page ( not the post).

Dr. Emily Levine DVM DACVB

Animal Emergency & Referral Associates

Fairfield, NJ 07068


Published in: on April 29, 2015 at 9:06 pm  Leave a Comment  

Biting The Hand That Pets You…

dog handIt has been a long day. You get home from work, you manage to get something on the table to pass for dinner, you’ve helped with homework, put the kids to bed and now you can finally take a deep breath and sit down on the couch to rest. You see your dog approaching you with an eagerness and you think to yourself how much you love your dog and  how you are about to share a special cuddly moment together. You go to pet him and BAM!…. the little stinker bites you!  Well, now you are shocked ( and probably a bit angry). You start wondering why in the world your dog would bite you, his beloved guardian. You tell your spouse, you tell your neighbors and friends and well, everyone has an opinion. Some people tell you your dog is trying to dominate you whereas others tell you your dog is bipolar and needs to see a shrink ( a.k.a. veterinary behaviorists). So somehow in between work, kids, spouses, household chores, you now need to need take your dog to a shrink?  You think to yourself, ..there is no way I’m going to do that!!  Until you get home again that night and you look into those adorable eyes and start to wonder…is my dog bipolar? Is he going to bite me every time I reach out to pet him? What is going on with my dog?

Well,  we do not know if dogs experience a condition similar to bipolar, but we do know that there are many reasons that a dog may approach and bite you if you try to pet him ( and trying to be dominant is NOT one of them!). Assuming there are no medical conditions or negative associations with hands that require a skilled professional, or some other often diagnosed condition,  there is a very common, reasonable explanation for why some of our beloved pets snap when we go to pet them in the specific context described above. It can be summed up as “frustration”  The frustration part is from your dog’s perspective that you, his beloved guardian, doesn’t understand what he wants/needs.

You know how crazy busy you are during the day and how you can’t wait to get home and sink into the couch and not have to lift a finger? Well, your canine companion has been spending that time resting and waiting for something to do. When you arrive home, that is when their day gets started.  Many dogs are so eager to play and to be mentally stimulated that when they approach you and they see that darn hand coming out to pet them, they want to scream..”I DONT WANT TO BE PET! ITS TIME TO DO SOMETHING! LETS GO LETS GO LETS GO!!! They have probably tried more subtle ways of telling you this but you have likely missed those signs so now, the dog is very frustrated.  For any of you that have experience with young active children, you know there are times when you can get them to sit and calmly listen to a story and other times where you would not even attempt such a crazy thing because you know the kids just need to run around and get some energy out!

For those of you who have found yourself with a generally loving dog who goes to bite your hand in the  specific context above, do this: The next time your dog approaches you while you are siting, do not reach out and pet. Ask if he wants to play tug and get up and go get a tug toy or go get some treats and engage him in some training exercises. Better yet, do this before you sit pre-emptive ( lets face it, once we sink into that couch, it can be really hard to get back up). Have a play session or a training session before you collapse for the evening. If this doesn’t help, then indeed, make an appointment with your veterinarian for a physical exam and if your dog is given a clean bill of health, it is indeed time to see a skilled behavioral professional.

Emily D. Levine DVM DACVB

Animal Emergency and Referral Associates

1237 Bloomfield Avenue

Fairfield NJ 07004


Published in: on April 26, 2015 at 8:15 pm  Leave a Comment  

Why Shouldn’t We Use Punishment to Teach A Dog Not To Jump Up For Greetings?

jail pupRecently someone asked a very good question about the use of punishment when dogs jump to greet people. The person made the analogy that if a dog were to interact with a porcupine, the dog would get hurt and therefore, not likely go near a porcupine again. Something unpleasant happened so the dog learned not to approach porcupines. An example that could apply to humans is that of a hot stove. When the stove top is red and we touch it, we get punished (burned) and therefore, we learn not to touch hot stoves. Why, if punishment works so well for the above examples, shouldn’t we use punishment to keep dogs from jumping on us? It seems very reasonable and rational that many people would come to the conclusion that the use of punishment would be the preferred method to use. Hopefully, after reading this, you will walk away with a deeper understanding of the use of punishment and behavior, and well…..our relationships with our pets.

First, when punishment is used, it only needs to be used once, perhaps twice (bottom line…very few times) and the unwanted behavior should stop. That’s the whole point of punishment after all. But how many times do you find yourself or see others repeating a punishment over and over again? I see people doing it quite literally for years!

Now, for arguments sake, lets just say a punishment technique worked for a greeting behavior ( i.e. dogs jumping up on people). Does that mean we should use it? Aren’t we ethically and morally obligated to use the least aversive techniques as possible? And if so, how does the example of the porcupine and the hot stove make any sense at all? Where does that fit into learning, behavior, and punishment?

First, when a dog/person approaches something that is unsafe or could cause significant harm to him/her, it makes sense ethologically that we only approach that item once and learn that the “item” is not safe and we should stay away. After all, those who don’t get hurt/harmed survive to pass on their genes. Here is the difference. Dogs do not have “relationships with porcupines”. They do not need to interact with them on a daily basis, depend upon them for shelter, food, and quite frankly, everything else in their life. Porcupines do not structure the dog’s day, activities, and meals. The same goes for a person and a stove. If porcupines and stoves were significant relationships in our lives, we would all be in trouble! What would happen if punishment was dolled out for the most benign actions such as an approach (as is the case with a dog and a porcupine) or touch (as is the case with a person and a stove), with a person whom we depend on to care for us, teach us, guide us, and protect us? Imagine a child being punished for trying to hug their parent, or going to tickle them? Family dynamics where punishment is used in inhumane ways leads to very dysfunctional relationships and puts the child in a very sad and harmful position that can quite literally, change who that child becomes. Can you imagine being a bystander and see a happy kid running to his parent’s arms outstretched for a hug and upon getting to the parent, the parent pushes/knees them in the chest or slaps them? A look of horror would likely cross your face. (This is why you might see those who know something about dog behavior cringe when they see people knee a dog for a greeting).

The relationship between a dog, or any other pet, and a person needs to be viewed more like a parent/child relationship in that the human needs to be viewed as kind, caring, loving, trusting, and of course being able to provide food, shelter, health care etc. Now, let’s go back to the jumping for greetings example. Why do dogs jump to greet? It’s simple – to get attention and say hello. The dog is as innocent and joyful when they go to do that as is the child who wants to hug or tickle. To punish this behavior is a misuse of punishment and can create a very confused, anxious pet. Can you just imagine a dog being so excited to see his or her person and enthusiastically go to say hi but ends up getting a big slap in the face? What must that dog be thinking? Do you think this helps build trust in his person as a guardian or good leader? Or do you think it is more likely that he would be confused, shocked, scared? How would this alter the overall relationship? To complicate things, bigger dogs may interpret being pushed back or kneed as their person’s way of “giving attention back or playing” so what does the dog do? They jump harder and longer to continue the fun and them BAM… a big punch to the face and being thrown on their back and screamed at. At this point, the poor dog surely believes his person is schizophrenic because his or her behavior makes no sense at all!! Ready to make it more complicated? Sometimes when a dog jumps up to greet because they want attention, many people will actually give them attention by petting them and looking at them or talking to them. So now that same greeting behavior is sometimes reinforced, sometimes punished, and sometimes greeted with more play behavior from the person (from the dog’s perspective). Sometimes I can’t believe there are any sane dogs out there given how we confuse them! So, if we shouldn’t use punishment, what are we suppose to do for dogs who jump to greet??

We simply need to teach them that in order to get attention, which is what they want in the first place, they must learn to say please. How do dogs say please? They sit. If they sit and stay seated, they get the attention they so desperately want.

We are so quick to recognize what we don’t want our dog friends to do that we often forget to teach them what we do want them to do. Unless you know something about basic training, there are valid reasons why this method appears not to work. There are different humane methods to teach dogs how to sit for greetings and having a trainer guide you through it is important. Some key concepts to know when teaching dogs to sit to get attention are positive reinforcement, negative punishment, and extinction bursts. If you are working with a trainer who is not familiar with these concepts, find another trainer.

I sincerely hope, this has helped shed some light on why we should not punish our dogs for jumping and I hope people continue to ask these very important questions.

*By the way, negative punishment is very different from positive punishment, which is the kind of punishment that was used in all the examples above.


Emily D. Levine DVM

Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists

Animal Emergency & Referral Associates

Fairfield NJ 07068




Published in: on March 26, 2015 at 5:16 pm  Leave a Comment  

Why The Way We Teach Cue Words ( a.k.a. commands) Is So Important

fun dog treainingMany of the dogs that I have the privilege of working with,  suffer from anxiety, aggression, compulsive disorder, the inability to focus etc…Often times, part of an overall treatment plan involves teaching the dog  cue words or teaching the dog’s family members how to give the cue word so the dog understands what is being asked in a way that the dog does not find threatening or anxiety provoking. Cue words are critical in providing our dogs with information on what we would like them to do OR how they should feel about something. It would make no sense at all to use cue words or commands in such a way that actually makes the dog more anxious or aggressive! This is counterproductive and inhumane!  This is why an understanding of learning theory is so important. We often see people asking their dog to something in a tone of voice or with body language that scares or intimidates  the dog. We often see people who are giving commands in a nice kind way but the techniques they are doing, without realizing it, leads to blocking or overshadowing ( important learning theory terms) which will prevent the dog from learning what we want him to learn, or confuse him because, we the humans, think we are teaching the dog one thing but he is actually learning something else! For example we think we are teaching the dog to sit by saying the verbal word sit, but at the exact same time we hold up a treat. We are not teaching the dog in a manner that is clear and concise and he may not be learning the verbal word to sit YET we think the dog does understand the word “sit”. Then  what happens when we ask them to sit with just a verbal cue and they don’t do it? We get mad! How unfair is this to the dog???  Can you imagine trying to work with a dog who has any behavioral issues when the two species are unable to communicate effectively?  Once we have established a line of communication between the species that is clear and not anxiety/fear provoking, we can then begin the real behavior modifications that are often necessary to deal with aggression and anxiety.


Emily D. Levine DVM

Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists

Animal Emergency & Referral Associates

Fairfield NJ 07068

Published in: on February 28, 2015 at 1:49 pm  Leave a Comment  

New Great Blog by Veterinary Behaviorists

Please read the blog that my colleagues and I are doing. You will get great information about various behavioral topics. Pay particular attention to the post by Dr. Lore Haug on the Truth About Positive Reinforcement Training. It is imperative that veterinarians and dog owners become as educated as possible on training techniques so we can stop harming our canine companions in the name of so called “training”.

Published in: on September 17, 2014 at 1:52 pm  Leave a Comment  

Socialization: When To Do It And When Not To Do It

maltese_puppiesMost new dog owners have heard that they should socialize their puppy.  The idea is simple.  Bring your puppy everywhere you go so he or she gets used to different people, sounds, sights etc…  Seems reasonable right? Well, like with most things in life, there is more than meets the eye here. There are several factors to consider when socializing a puppy or being instructed to socialize a dog with behavior problems to ensure we are helping and not hurting our canine companions.


Many people have heard of sensitive periods (formerly known as critical periods) in dogs. Sensitive periods are time frames in animals’ lives when experiences, or lack thereof, with certain stimuli (e.g. different people, animals, sounds etc.) can have a large effect on later behavior. One of these sensitive periods is called the socialization period. In dogs, this occurs roughly between 4-14 weeks of age.  During this age range, puppies are learning about their environment (i.e.  what is safe and good.)  This is the reason people are encouraged to take their puppies everywhere with them and meet lots of different types of people and dogs.  Here are some important details about socialization that every dog owner or pet professional should know:


  1. Socialization will only have a positive effect if the socialization experience is positive. If you expose a puppy to people who interact with the him/her incorrectly, or introduce a puppy to dogs who are aggressive to other dogs,  you will likely be teaching the puppy that people and dogs are scary and dangerous. This is in fact the opposite of what we want socialization to achieve! A dog owner should strive to make socialization positive for a puppy. Have people toss treats, pet appropriately, allow close interactions with other dogs who have good social skills or at least are not aggressive to other dogs, and use trainers who do not use physical punishment as a form of training. When it comes to loud sounds in the environment such as storms or fireworks, or traffic noises, associate them with something positive such as a playing with a toy or giving a treat or attention.

Take away: Socializing a puppy requires positive experiences when introduced to new stimuli AND the avoidance of negative experiences.

  1. Some puppies and young dogs, for a variety of reasons, may show anxiety and or aggression towards many stimuli at a very young age in which case these are not the right candidates to take everywhere and expose them to many stimuli. If you take an already anxious or aggressive puppy/young dog and force them into situations that they find scary you are doing something called “flooding”. This is a high risk technique that could make a puppy more anxious or aggressive. For example, if there is puppy who is fearful of people and hides behind the owner when strangers try to pet the puppy and that owner decides to take the puppy into town and have everyone come up to the puppy and pet him even when he is hiding behind the owner, that owner is not helping the  puppy feel less anxious if he is still clearly hiding while people are petting. This is a perfect recipe to teach a puppy to be more anxious or teach a puppy they may have to use a different strategy, such as aggression, to get people to stop approaching and petting.  (We can not blame the dog because the humans were clearly not listening to the puppy’s behaviors that were screaming…”stay away from me, I am scared!”).  If you have a puppy /young dog showing anxiety or aggression, there are lots of methods to helping your puppy feel less anxious. Reach out to a qualified professional for help.
  2. Socialization is not a treatment for dogs with aggressive or anxiety disorders. Too often, owners of aggressive/anxious dogs are being told, “you just need to socialize your dog more.”  This translates into, “take your dog who lunges at children to a children’s park and have him meet the kids.,” or “ take your dog who is scared of other dogs and take him to a dog park.” This advice is fraught with risk for both people and the dogs.  There are many options to modify a dog’s anxious or aggressive issues but flooding them to the stimuli they are scared of, under the guise of  socialization, is not one of them.

Take away: Socialization is not a treatment for dogs with existing behavioral issues.

  1. Don’t stop socializing at 14 weeks. Although the socialization sensitive period ends at approximately 14 weeks, this does not mean you can hang up your dog leash, hang up your treat pouch, and pat yourself on the back for a job well done. It is critical that we continue to reinforce that people, dogs, sounds etc., are good and safe. Think of it like this: Parents of human children do not stop feeding their kids protein after their maximal growth spurts.  We know the body at certain developmental times needs more protein to avoid serious health problems; however,  this does not mean parents stop feeding protein just because their child has passed that maximal growth period. Along those same lines, doggy parents shouldn’t stop reinforcing and teaching their dog that various stimuli are safe even though they have passed that maximal “growth spurt” . Perhaps the best way to look at socialization is to look at it like a behavioral vaccine. You are doing everything you can to protect your dog from developing behavioral problems. Like vaccines, nothing is 100%.  Some dogs will develop behavioral problems despite the best attempts of socializing but the odds of developing a behavioral problem increase dramatically, if socialization is not done or is done incorrectly.

Take away: Vaccinate your dog against behavior problems by responsibly socializing your puppy but don’t stop your efforts simply because your puppy has outgrown puppyhood.


Emily D. Levine DVM

Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists

Animal Emergency & Referral Associates

Fairfield NJ 07068


Published in: on September 14, 2014 at 11:41 am  Comments (1)  

Why you should never send your aggressive dog away to be “trained”:

Click on the link below.

Published in: on May 29, 2014 at 6:39 pm  Leave a Comment  
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